Akbari, M., Bahadori, M. H., Milan, B. B., Caselli, G., & Spada, M. M. (2021). Metacognitions as a predictor of online gaming in adolescents: Psychometric properties of the metacognitions about online gaming scale among Iranian adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 118, 106904

Abstract

The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale (MOGS) measures maladaptive metacognitions about online gaming. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the MOGS, including its factor structure, reliability, and predictive validity among Iranian adolescents. The scale was administered to 769 Iranian adolescents (577 male, mean age = 16.39 ± 1.68 years) with an age range of 15–19 years. The participants completed the Persian-translated version of the MOGS, the Big Five Inventory-10, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21, the Video-Game Related Cognitions Scale, the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire, and the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire. The results of the Exploratory Factor Analysis (n = 350) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (n = 419) confirmed three-factors similar to the parent version, including “negative metacognitions about uncontrollability of online gaming” (N-MOGU), “negative metacognitions about dangers of online gaming” (N-MOGD), and “positive metacognitions about online gaming” (P-MOG). The Persian MOGS’s reliability showed a suitable internal consistency for the P-MOG, the N-MOGU, the N-MOGD, and the total score in both confirmatory and exploratory samples (range 0.79 to 0.93). A hierarchical regression analysis showed that the Persian MOGS predicted 33.9% of the variance in problematic online gaming independently of personality traits, anxiety, depression, stress, and both gaming-related cognitions and gaming motives. Furthermore, the results of analyses of variance with follow-up Bonferroni pairwise comparisons showed that interaction between the factors of MOGS and types of game and tools of gaming was significant. The findings provide evidence that the Persian MOGS among Iranian adolescents appears psychometrically appropriate to be used by researchers and practitioners dealing with the prevention and treatment of problematic online gaming.