Metacognitions in smoking: Evidence from a cross-cultural validation of the Metacognitions about Smoking Questionnaire in a Turkish sample
Metacognitions about the positive and negative effects of smoking have been associated with cigarette use and nicotine dependence. The aim of the present study was to validate the Turkish version of the Metacognitions about Smoking Questionnaire (MSQ; Nikčević et al., 2015). The sample consisted of 859 self-declared smokers (452 female) aged between 18 and 68 years (mean = 28.3; SD = 7.9). Once the English to Turkish translation of the MDQ was completed, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted based on the four-factor structure of the original measure. Initially results suggested that this model was an inadequate fit of the data obtained. However, by allowing three pairs of items (within factor) to co-vary, a re-specified model was tested that was found to be a satisfactory fit of the data. Internal reliability and predictive validity of the translated scale were observed to be good. The Turkish version of the MSQ exhibited suitable psychometric properties. This study also showed that metacognitions about smoking predict nicotine dependence independently of demographic variables, length of cigarette use, negative affect, and smoking outcome expectancies.