Lenzo, V., Sardella, A., Musetti, A., Freda, M. F., Lemmo, D., Vegni, E., Borghi, L., Plazzi, G., Palagini, L., & Castelnuovo, G. (2022). The relationship between resilience and sleep quality during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study. Nature and Science of Sleep, 14, 41.


Purpose: Previous studies showed poor sleep quality during the first Italian lockdown consequent to the quick spread of the virus. Poor sleep quality remained stable during the so-called “second wave”, which started in Autumn 2020. This study aimed to compare sleep quality between the two waves of contagions and to examine the effect of resilience, together with sociodemographic and COVID-related variables, on sleep quality during the second wave.

Patients and methods: A total of 648 participated in this longitudinal study through an online survey during the first lockdown consequent to the COVID-19 and during the second wave. The Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale (MOS-SS) and the Resilience Scale (RS) were administered. Sociodemographic and COVID-related information were also collected.

Results: The results showed sleep quality slightly increased in the second wave, even though with a small effect size. Correlational analysis showed that resilience is inversely correlated with sleep quality measured in the two waves. Sleep quality during the second wave was positively correlated with sleep quality in the first lockdown. Likewise, the results of multiple regression revealed that the sleep quality in the first lockdown and resilience were significant predictors of sleep quality during the second wave.

Conclusion: These findings highlighted that the prevalence of poor sleepers remained high during the second wave. Together with the sleep quality in the first lockdown, resilience represents an important factor related to sleep quality during the second wave. Interventions to improve sleep quality among the general population should take into account these findings.

doi: 10.2147/NSS.S344042