Offredi, A., Caselli, G., Manfredi, C., Liuzzo, P., Rovetto, F., Ruggiero, G. M, & Sassaroli, S. (2016). Effects of anger rumination on different scenarios of anger: an experimental investigation. American Journal of Psychology, 129(4), 381-390.

Anger rumination has been defined as a repetitive thinking style focused on causes and consequences of anger. Different studies have shown the role of anger rumination as a maintaining factor for emotional arousal and stress that can lead to behavioral dysregulation. The present study aims at investigating whether the role of anger rumination in increasing anger is different with respect to different anger scenarios. Moreover, effects of anger rumination on anger will be compared with the effects of 2 different thinking styles (cognitive reappraisal and distraction). Participants were asked to complete a batch of questionnaires assessing trait and state anger and anger rumination; after that, they were asked to identify themselves in different scenarios aimed at eliciting anger for different reasons. Finally, a specific thinking style was induced by reading some suggestions to each participant. Levels of anger were recorded before and after each induction. The type of scenario did not show any influence on levels of anger. All the thinking styles reduced levels of anger, and anger rumination had the smallest impact on anger measurements with respect to reappraisal and distraction. Scenarios did not show any meditational effect on the predicting power of the thinking styles on levels of arousal. Among induced thinking styles, anger rumination led to higher levels of anger, whereas cognitive reappraisal and distraction led to a greater reduction in levels of anger.